Category Archives: Sistemas Microprocesados I

History of microprocessors

Definition

  • A microprocessor is a chip.
  • containing some control and logic circuits.
  • making arithmetic and logical decisions.
  • return arithmetic or logical output.

Word Processor

  • derivative of the word ‘process’.
    • carry out systematic operations.
    • data.

Where is it used?

app_microprocessor

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE MICROPROCESSORS

  • 4004 and 4040 devices – early 1970’s.
    • Intel 4 bits.
    • add and subtract with 4-bit data only at a time.
    • all its circuitry on a single chip.
    • powered one of the first portable electronic calculators named Busicom’.

4004

  • 8008 and 8080 CPU’s
    • Intel eight-bit.
    • Incorporated in Altair 8800.
    • personal computer revolution was born.

8008

Competition

  • 8085 microprocessor8085
    • Intel 8-bits
    • lots of hardware improvements.
    • To the software engineer, the 8085 same as the 8080
  • 6800 series
    • Motorola 8-bits
    • easier to program
  • 65xx family65xx
    • MOS Technologies 8-bits
    • easier to program
    • very inexpensive
  • Z80 chip
    • Zilog 8-bits
    • compatible with the 8080
    • lots of additional instructions
  • 1978, most personal computers – 6502 or Z80 chips, not the Intel offerings.

Now everything makes sense.

  • 8086 device, 1976 – 1978.
    • Intel 16-bits.
    • Not first 16-bits but the highest performance single-chip
    • memory was very expensive
      • Solution was high memory density.

8086

Competition

  • Z8000z8000
    • Zilog 16-bits
    • Better instruction set
  • 68000
    • Motorola 16-bits
    • Better instruction set
  • 16032 or 32016
    • National Semiconductor 16-bits
    • Better instruction set

Revolution

  • 8088, 1979
    • Intel 16-bits with data bus 8-bits
    • Cost reduced
    • minimal system with only 16 kilobytes of RAM and a set of cheap eight-bit peripheral devices.
    • IBM PC, 1980

8088

Upgrade

  • 8018680186
    • Intel 16-bits
    • Superior in hardware
    • Superior in software
    • Embedded applications
  • 80286
    • Intel 16-bits
    • allowed access to as much as 16 megabytes of memory.
    • lots of new instructions
    • bumped up the clock frequency
    • 10 times faster than the 8088
    • IBM PC/AT

80286

  • 80386
    • Intel 32-bits
    • complete compatibility with the previous 16-bit CPUs
    • maximum addressability to four gigabytes
    • added hardware debugging support for software
  • RISC (one cycle – instruction) vs 80386
    • Multiple fast instructions vs powerful instruction

80386

  • 80486
    • Intel 32-bits
    • FPU integrated
    • Pipelined instruction execution
    • was able to compete with RISC chips
  • RISC chips
    • Parallel execution
    • Better FPU

80486

  • Pentium Processor
    • Intel 32-bits
    • Better and complex hardware
    • Near RISC performance
  • Pentium PRO
    • Intel 32-bits
    • Servers
    • Multiprocessing
    • Instruction for pipelined architecture
    • Failure for MMX in standard chips….

pentium

  • Pentium II
    • Intel
    • Pentium PRO with MMX
    • Wrong idea
    • Celeron for low cost
    • Xeon for servers and high-end workstations

pentiumII

  • Pentium III
    • Intel
    • SIMD – high performance float point operation
    • Compete with high-end RISC CPUs.
    • More instructions

pentiumIII

  • Pentium IV
    • Intel
    • 2 GHz
    • a much higher clock frequency than its RISC
    • The code execution at same frequency is slower that Pentium III

pentiumIV